Essays by Yoshitoshi: Kaoyo Gozen
(Ikkai zuihitsu: Kaoyo Gozen)
signed Ikkaisai Yoshitoshi hitsu, with artist's seal Kai, publisher's seal Dobashi Masadaya han (Masadaya Heikichi of Seiedo), and cyclical date seal Tori-ni (year of the cock , 2nd lunar month)
oban tate-e 14 5/8 by 9 7/8 in., 37 by 25.15 cm
The beauty Lady Kaoyo runs her fingers through her hair while baring herself to a standing mirror. Her story is told in chapter 21 of the 14th-century historical epic Chronicle of Great Peace (Taiheiki). Lord Ko Moronao (d. 1351), a chief retainer of the Shogun Ashikaga Takauji (1305-1358), hears of Gozen's great beauty and arranges to see her after a bath. Moronao finds her irresistible, but is faced with the dilemma posed by her husband, En'ya Takasada. In his excitement, he accused En'ya of treason, hoping to win the beauty for himself. The plot proves to be a miscalculation, however, as he was forced to have En'ya and his entire family, including his wife, put to death.
The story of the evil Lord Moronao became familiar in the Edo Period when it was adapted to tell the tragedy of the forty-seven ronin in The Treasury of Loyal Retainers (Chushingura), a fictionalized account based on events from 1701-1703. In order to avoid shogunal censorship, which banned the direct representation of any contemporary events, the Chushingura version of the tale was set in the 14th century, with Moronao taking the role of the main villain. In this context, the wife of En'ya, whose name is not identified in the Taiheiki, is given the name Kaoyo (lit. 'face-world').
Yoshitoshi later depicts the Lady Kaoyo in a similar context in his famous series One Hundred Aspects of the Moon (Tsuki hyakushi), on a verandah overlooking a moonlit garden. In both compositions, the Lady Kaoyo, who is portrayed as very modest in the kabuki play, is rather unabashedly revealing herself.
Highlights of Japanese Printmaking: Part Five - Yoshitoshi, Scholten Japanese Art, New York, 2017, cat. no. 46
Roger Keyes, Courage and Silence, 1983, p. 395, no. 280.5
Eric van den Ing & Robert Schaap, Beauty and Violence, 1992, p. 111, no. 23.5
Akita Museum of Modern Art, Tsukioka Yoshitoshi: The Last Ukiyo-e Artist of Genius, 1999, p. 26, no. 78
John Stevenson, Yoshitoshi's 100 Aspects of the Moon, 2001, no. 37 (re: story)
Yuriko Iwakiri, Yoshitoshi, 2014, p. 62, no. 85
Scholten Japanese Art is open Monday - Friday, and some Saturdays, 11am - 5pm, by appointment.
Contact Katherine Martin at
(212) 585-0474 or email
to schedule a visit.
site last updated
February 20, 2020
Scholten Japanese Art
145 West 58th Street, suite 6D
New York, New York 10019
ph: (212) 585-0474
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