Tsukioka Yoshitoshi, 1839-1892
Thirty-Two Aspects of Customs and Manners: Hot, The Appearance of a Wealthy Housewife in the Bunsei era [1818-1830]
(Fuzoku sanjuniso: atsuso bunsei nenkan naishitsu no fuzoku)
signed Yoshitoshi ga, with artist's seal Taiso, carver's seal Wada koku, and publisher's date and address seal Meiji nijuichinen, sangatsu, juka; Tokyo Nihonbashi Bakurocho Nichome 14-banchi, Tsunajima Kamekichi (Meiji 21 , March 10) of Tsujiokaya Kamekichi of Kinkido
oban tate-e 14 5/8 by 10 in., 37.15 by 25.4 cm
The application of moxa, a slow burning material, was believed to stimulate the flow of life-force in one's body. Its principle was similar to that of acupuncture, though this treatment left a much more visible and painful mark. The intensity of the beauty's steady gaze locking eyes with the viewer suggests that the moxa was not applied by a maid but, perhaps, by a lover; the possibility of which is further alluded to in the title 'hot.'
The playful use of the word hot also refers to the covered hibachi (brazier) over which the housewife is leaning. While the knotted woodgrain of the hibachi would have been drawn during its composition, the woodgrain effect achieved in the background of the series title cartouche was accomplished through itame mokuhan, for which a tightly grained piece of wood was allowed to soak in water and then used like any other printing block.
Keyes 1983, p. 482, no. 503.10
Segi 1985, p. 92, no. 103.8
van den Ing & Schaap 1992, p. 139, no. 63.8
Stevenson 1995, no. 8
Akita Museum of Modern Art 1999, p. 44, no. 181
Ota Memorial Museum of Art 2009, p. 11, no. 1.8
Ota Memorial Museum of Art 2012, p. 140, no. 209
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